Order Management Glossary

The following terms have specific meanings or uses in Order Management:

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W

A

Activity
A note made on an object in Order Management. A common use of activities is to track tasks, with user-defined details and follow-up dates. You can define custom codes to represent activities and their results.
Allocation
The assignment of physical products from inventory to shipping orders.
Apply funds
The act of applying captured funds to an invoice.
Approval
A workflow step that lets an object continue past the waiting approval stage. You can enable or disable approvals for different objects in the Order Management Administration: Settings > Preferences. If approvals are enabled for an object, then instances of that object must be approved either manually or by an automated job. If approvals are disabled, then instances of that object are automatically approved when they reach the waiting approval stage of the workflow.
Association
A user-defined relationship between item objects. When an association is set on an item in relation to a second Item, the inverse association is automatically set on the second item. For example, if Item A is defined as an up sell of item B, then item B is automatically defined as a down sell of item A. Association types include:
Attribute
A custom data field assigned to an object.
Attribute group
A user-defined set of attributes.
Auction
An Order Management provider.
Authorize funds
The act of holding funds without actually capturing them.
Available
The inventory status of an item when it isn't defined as backorderable or unique, and its on hand quantity is greater than the sum of its on hold quantity and its safety stock quantity. A master item is available if any of its child items is available. Items that are sourced from third-party vendors via drop ship or purchase order are always available.
Available To Sell (ATS)
The sellable quantity of an available item at a particular site. ATS is calculated as the on hand quantity minus its on hold quantity minus its safety stock quantity (OH-HO-SS).
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B

Backorder authorization (BO Auth)
The quantity of an item that is currently committed to open sales orders beyond the quantity that is physically in inventory. This is calculated as the on hold (committed to open sales orders) quantity minus the on hand (physically in inventory) quantity.
Backorderable
A lag set on an item that can be sold even if it has no available inventory.
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C

Capture funds
The act of collecting funds. Also called ensure funds.
Catalog
An Order Management object. A high-level grouping of items, for example, a company that offers multiple brands, organizing its products into a catalog for each brand.
Category
An Order Management object. A grouping of items into a logical set. Categories exist in their own inheritance hierarchy within the item inheritance hierarchy. .
Child item
An item type for an available variation of a master item. Child items can be ordered directly, while master items can't.
Company
An Order Management object. The company that is using Order Management.
Connector
The integration with an external sales channel. Order Management has connectors for eBay and the Amazon Marketplace.
Contract price
An item price that is set for a specific customer, usually used for B2B sales. A contract price can be configured to vary by sale quantity, similar to a price level. A contract price that applies to a sale overrides any price level or simple price set on the item. Contract prices are often used in conjunction with payment terms, which are set on orders.
Credit memo
An Order Management object. A payment or credit given to a customer.
Culture
A configuration used to manage the presentation of the Order Management user interface in multiple languages or regions. For example, if you have call centers in the US and Mexico, the Customer Service Center could be presented in the US culture in the former and the Mexico culture in the latter.
Customer
Order Management object. An entity that purchases goods or services.
Customer Service Center
An optional Order Management module that offers functionality for Customer Service agents to manage customers and their orders.
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D

Drop ship
A flag set on an item that is sold by the company but is shipped by a third-party vendor. When a drop ship item is sold, a purchase order is generated instead of a shipping order.
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E

Email reminders
A setting in Order Management Administration: Settings > Preferences, which, when enabled, causes Order Management to automatically send emails to customers in the following circumstances:
  • When an order has remained in the system for a certain number of days without going through checkout.
  • When payment for an order has not been received within a certain number of days.
  • As a follow-up a certain number of days after an order ships.
Ensure funds
The act of collecting funds. Also called capture funds.
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F

Filing
A manual workflow step for certain objects, such as sales orders and shipping orders, which occurs just prior to closing the object. Useful for QA or supervisory sign-off, this optional step can be enabled or disabled for different objects in Order Management Administration: Settings > Preferences.
Fulfillment Center
An optional Order Management module that enables you to manage picking, packing, shipping, and receiving.
Fulfillment sites
An Order Management object. A location where inventory is stored or where the company otherwise does business, including retail stores, warehouses, virtual stores, and drop ship vendors.
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G

Gross taxation policy
The taxation policy where tax amounts are included in item prices and order subtotals, rather than as separate values. This is generally applicable to sites that use VAT. The total tax field shows the word Included instead of the tax amount.
Note: Multiple items within a single order can be charged VAT at different rates.
Group item
An item type for a defined set of physical items. The sales price of a group item is always the sum of the prices of its component items. The availability of a group item depends on the availability of its component items, When it's sold, the inventory of its component items is decremented. Group item inventory isn't independently tracked.
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I

Incomplete
A record that has not been completely entered into the system. For example, an order that is partially entered but not yet submitted. Also called waiting completion.
Internationalization
The design of a software application or product so that it can potentially be adapted to multiple languages and regions to support global markets.
Invoice
An Order Management object. An amount of money that is owed to the company for items in a shipping order.
item
An Order Management object. A product or service offered for sale.
item code
An identifier for items. Order Management can generate them automatically as items are created. You can configure Order Management to require unique codes for each item. This only affects the user interface, because item objects are represented by unique identifiers in the Order Management database.
item inheritance hierarchy
The hierarchical organization of the providers that configure the behavior of the Order Management system. A provider defined at a certain level or node of the hierarchy is inherited by levels below it in the hierarchy. The levels of the hierarchy, in order from top to bottom, are:
  1. Company
  2. Catalog
  3. Site
  4. Category
  5. Sub-category
  6. item
  7. Auction
item status:
The current inventory level of an item. Statuses include:
  • Available: not defined as backorderable or unique, with an on hand quantity greater than its on hold quantity. A master item is available if any of its child items is available. Items that are sourced from third-party vendors via drop ship or purchase order are always available.
  • Available (B): defined as backorderable. Backorderable items are always in this status.
  • Available (U): defined as unique with an available quantity of 1.
  • Out of stock: not defined as backorderable, with an on hand quantity less than or equal to its on hold quantity. Order Management doesn't accept orders for an item in this status.
  • Waiting approval: created in the system but not yet approved, regardless of its inventory level. Order Management does not accept orders for an item in this status.
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J

Job
The process that can be scheduled to run automatically. Jobs include data imports and exports, and other functions, such as object approvals.
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K

Key attribute
Assigned to an item object, usually a master item. It can be used to identify and browse product variations.
Kit item
An item type for a defined set of physical items. The sales price of a kit item is always the sum of the prices of its component items. The availability of a kit item depends on the availability of its component items. When it's sold, the inventory of its component items is decremented. Kit item inventory isn't independently tracked.
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L

Layout item
An item type for a defined set of physical items, master items, kits, or groups. A layout item does not have a price and isn't offered for sale, nor is its inventory tracked. Layout items are used for merchandising purposes to present sets of related items, regardless of their availability.
Listing
An Order Management object. An auction being run through the eBay connector.
Localization
The configuration used to manage text and visual assets when doing business in multiple languages or regions. For example, a product that is sold in the US and Mexico might have a different block of description text in English and Spanish. The localization setting manages which version is used.
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M

Master item
An item type for an item that is available in multiple variations. A master item is associated with one or more child items, which represent the individual variations. Master items can't be ordered directly.
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N

Net taxation policy
The taxation policy where tax amounts are presented as separate values, rather than included in item prices and order subtotals. This is generally applicable to sites that use sales tax (as in the United States). Price and tax information are stored as separate elements in an order object.
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O

Object
A data record in the Order Management database.
Object type
One of the standard types of records in the Order Management database.
Omnichannel
A multichannel approach to sales that provides the customer with a seamless shopping experience whether the customer is shopping online from a desktop or mobile device, by phone, or in a brick and mortar store.
On allocation (On Alloc)
The quantity of an item that is currently allocated to open shipping orders.
On hand (OH)
The quantity of an item that is physically in inventory. This value might also be 0 in cases where sales of an item are suppressed.
On hold (HO)
The quantity of an item that is currently committed to open but unfulfilled sales orders. This includes the quantity allocated to open shipping orders (the on allocation quantity).
On order (OO)
The quantity of an item that is currently on order for restocking.
Order
A purchase transaction. An order in the Order Management system begins as a sales order, which represents the order placed by a customer. From each sales order that involves physical products that must be shipped, one or more shipping orders are created to manage the actual shipping of products.
Order combination
The act of combining parts of multiple sales orders into a single shipping order when the sales orders share a common customer, shipping address, and shipping method. You can configure Order Management to combine orders automatically when eligible orders exist but have not yet been approved. Shipping orders that have already been approved are never combined.
Order item
An Order Management object. An item included in an order.
Order management system
A system that manages many or all aspects of the order lifecycle, including order capture, payment, allocation, fulfillment, inventory, shipping, and returns, and that provides a global view of the entire process.
Order splitting
The act of separating a single sales order into multiple shipping orders. This is done when the order contains items that must be sourced from different inventory sites. Order Management can be configured to prevent order splitting.
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P

Pack
The act of packing an order item for shipping.
Password policy
A group of settings in Order Management Administration Preferences that controls user password requirements, such as minimum length and enforced expiration.
Payment
A monetary payment made by a customer. Represented by a payment object in Order Management.
Physical item
An item type for a physical product.
Pick
The act of physically retrieving an order item from inventory in preparation for shipping.
Pick list
A list within Order Management whose contents can be customized
Price adjustment
Any change to the standard price of a line item or to an initial order total due to discounts, promotions, or additional charges. A positive price adjustment value represents a price increase, such as an extra fee, and a negative price adjustment value represents a price decrease, such as a discount.
Price level
The item price that is dependent on outside factors, such as order quantity or membership in a loyalty program. Multiple price levels can be defined for an item (for example, one price for a sale quantity of 1-10 units, and another price for a sale quantity of 11+ units). A price level overrides the simple price of an item, and is overridden if a contract price is defined for the item.
Price points
A method of calculating shipping charges for an order via a user-defined rate table based on the total price of the order.
Provider
A logical grouping of parameters and settings for configuring the behavior of Order Management. Some providers can be defined for a specific node or level of the item inheritance hierarchy.
Provider profile
A provider definition that can be assigned to one or more providers. Profiles make it easy to apply a common configuration to multiple nodes of the item inheritance hierarchy.
Public email display name
A display name that is concatenated with the public email address to create the from address in email correspondence sent from Order Management.
Purchase Order
An Order Management object. An order placed with a third-party vendor.
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Q

Qty points
A method of calculating shipping charges for an order via a user-defined rate table based on the total unit quantity of the order.
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R

Retail Center
An optional Order Management module that enables you to allocate products to orders from retail store locations.
RMA (return merchandise authorization)
An Order Management object. Authorization for a product return.
Role
A set of user permissions that can be assigned to Order Management user accounts.
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S

Safe mode email
A flag set in Order Management Administration Preferences that causes all emails sent by Order Management to be intercepted and sent to a specified destination instead of their actual addresses. Generally used for testing purposes.
Safety Stock
A quantity set on an item at the site level to protect store inventory from being sold out via online/phone orders. The Available To Sell quantity in the system is calculated as the On Hand quantity minus the On Hold quantity minus the Safety Stock quantity (OH-HO-SS). Safety Stocks apply only to physical items, and can't be set directly on master or kit items.
Sales order
An Order Management object. Represents an order placed by a customer. If the sales order includes physical products that must be shipped, then one or more shipping orders is generated.
Serialized
A flag set on an item when each instance of it's unique and must be tracked individually. An example might be a consumer electronics product with serial numbers that must be recorded.
Service item
A type of item that represents a service to be performed (as opposed to a product). Inventory isn't tracked for service items.
ShipConnect
An optional Order Management module that integrates with external shipping providers to batch print shipping labels.
Shipping order
An Order Management object. Manages the shipping of physical products to customers. One or more shipping orders are generated from each appropriate sales order.
Simple price
The base sale price set for an item. The simple price is overridden when a price level or contract price applies to a sale.
Site
See Fulfillment sites.
Sub-category
A category that is a child of another category in the category hierarchy.
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T

Tag
A custom constant that can be assigned to objects in the system. Tags are specific to object types. Order Management allows searching by tags, filtering by tags, and importing tags via the job system.
Taxable
A flag set on an item for which sales tax is to be charged.
Template
A body of text or HTML that defines an email, screen layout, or other communication. A template can use merge fields as variables that are replaced at run time with system data, for example, the recipient's name in a form email.
Terms
Special payment arrangements for certain customers, usually used for B2B relationships. When terms are applied to an order, any ensure funds step is skipped for that order. Terms are set on an order, while contract pricing is set on an item.
Test mode
A flag set on an external payment processor in Order Management Administration Preferences that enables testing the integration without actually processing payments. This flag must be turned off in the production system for payments to be processed.
Transaction
A transfer or exchange of goods, services, information, or money.
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U

Unique
A one-of-a-kind item that only exists as a single unit, for example, handmade art or a rare antique.
Universal Time Code (UTC)
A primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. Also called Coordinated Universal Time.
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V

Value-Added Tax (VAT)
An indirect sales tax paid on products and services throughout the European Community, the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries, and many other trading nations, but not the USA. VAT is included as part of the item price. VAT rates vary by country, region, or product type. See Gross taxation policy and Net taxation policy.
Vendor
An Order Management object. A third party from which items are procured by the company.
Virtual item
A type of item that represents a non-physical product, such as a gift card code.
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W

Waiting completion
A record that has not been completely entered into the system; for example, an order that is partially entered but not yet submitted. Also called incomplete.
Weight points
A method of calculating shipping charges for an order via a user-defined rate table based on the total weight of the order.
Workflow
Tasks with authorization steps for inventory, orders, sales, invoices, and other objects.
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